In the early 90s, the economy, politics, technology and culture advance and have specific characteristics that moment, but clearly no motion with a rupture last decade. The early years of this decade carry the dominant genes' 80s, the new manifest themselves more as the realization of the potential of these legacy than as inaugural events.
Globalization continued and accelerated with the fall of the Berlin Wall (1988), and with the crisis and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Cultural events as the third wave of feminism, environmentalism, grunge, west hip hop, house music / rave, skatboard culture and geeks have emerged or are derivations of movements of the 80s or earlier.
On the other hand, despite many commonalities, the second half of the 90s is commonly associated with the early twenty-first century, as a precursor period of trends that will be consolidated in the early years of the new century. Following this perspective, many point to the second half of the 90s as a starting point for those born in the generation Z.
- Release of Nelson Mandela.
- Launch of the Hubble Space Telescope.
- Margaret Thatcher resigns the post of prime minister of England.
- Version 1.0 release of Adobe Photoshop image editor.
- Sir Tim Berners-Lee develops HTML, the identifier URL and the HTTP protocol.
- Madonna launches "justify my love."
- Death of Freddie Mercury
- Launches Nirvana smells like teen spirit
- The internet is beginning to be commercially available
- Boris Yeltsin became the first elected president of Russia
- Launch of the first DSLR camera commercially available (Kodak DCS 100)
- Signature of the Treaty of Maastricht to the creation of the European Union
- inauguration of the Euro Disney in France.
- Inauguration of US President Bill Clinton
- Czechoslovakia splits into Czech Republic and Slovakia.
- Intel introduced the Pentium microprocessor.
- Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center.
- Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa.
- Opening of the Eurotunnel.
- Death F1 Ayrton Senna pilot.
- Princess Diana and Prince Charles divorced.
- Arises the Web TV.
- Diana's death.
- Announcement of the first cloned sheep - Dolly
- Emergence of google
- Introduction of the official currency of the eurozone.
EVENTS AND TRENDS
The 90's had various styles and one of the leading early in the decade was grunge.
Grunge (sometimes called Seattle Sound and Seattle sound) is a subgenre of alternative rock that emerged in the late 1980s in the city of Seattle, inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal and by the indie rock.
The grunge term - which in its original sense means "dirt" or "filth" in English - describes both the visual style (shaggy hair, old and loose clothing) bands and fans, as the saturated and distorted sound of the guitars that give the tone of the songs.
The only genre began to decline after the suicide of his idol, Kurt Cobain, leader of Nirvana in 1994.
- THE 3rd WAVE FEMINISM
The late 80s and early 90s was not easy for traditional feminist groups. Not only the ideological crisis caused by the fall of the Berlin Wall, as well as the hurricane Madonna created a tsunami causing changes in the feminist movement, ushering in the 3rd wave.
Within the feminist movement, there are voices that rediscutem femininity and argue that you can be a feminist while wearing makeup and other beauty items associated with sexist domination, in a positive perspective. This group was assigned the name of lipstick feminism.
Besides lipstick feminism, there are other movements such as Riot Grrrl and Slut Feminism, which will use less makeup as the object of increasing discussion or embellishment and more like one of the instruments of expression of their ideological struggle. The look takes many different possible ways, and the "kinderwhore" Courtney Love, without doubt, the most iconic of all.
In the second half of the 90s, with the success of boy bands, the teen consumer market draws investors' attention to further and we see the emergence of various "cultural products" for this audience. The industrialized feminism gives rise to new Girl Power ready for consumption by adolescents without contraindications. The Spice Girls, teens other singers and a whole new generation of super-heroines are massively consumed.
- THE AESTHETIC "HEROIN CHIC"
Many have suffered criticism for being aesthetic, a fact that greatly enhanced the visibility. For many it was the expression of nihilist values that dominated the fashion world, others highlighted the risks inherent in glamorizing process of drugs and, finally, accused this aesthetic to have traces of androgyny, misogyny, and even pedophilia and promote a standard feminimo of beauty even more intangible.
The model Jaime King, a heroin addict, is considered one of the inspirations, but the queen and icon of this aesthetic is the British model Kate Moss, who in 1993 starred in the campaign of Calvin Klein, beginning the great diffusion of this aesthetic that was relevant but not popular in the middle of the decade.
Pale, malnourished models with youthful look, androgynous, without power and in a context related to drug addiction to synthesize the images.
The photograph was the main media used for the dissemination of this aesthetic, with large use of black and white photo.
The makeup sought to neutralize any trace of natural health and vitality at the same time emphasized traits associated with addiction. This translated into a pale makeup, no color or brightness, sometimes highlighted with dark circles and smoky eyes or blurred.
Another important detail of makeup, even when the skin was not prepared, were the techniques used to check or bounced on the face of models signs of emaciation and malnutrition. The sinking effect of the cheeks was the most sought and was done more intensely and with better results the photographs in black and white.
What migrated from advertising and catwalk to the real world at the time was the trend of a makeup more neutral colors, matte foundations and lipsticks and the desire of women to have their cheeks transformed the secrets of makeup or the scalpels of Plastic Surgeons .
As in previous decades, MTV and actresses of the TV series continue to influence fashion and behavior.
SERIAL OF TV
- BEVERLY HILLS, 90210: 1990 to May 2000, starring Jennie Garth, Jason Priestley, Ian Ziering, Shannen Doherty, Tori Spelling, Brian Austin Green, Luther Perry,
- BAYWATCH :1991 to 2001 starring Pamela Anderson, Nicole Eggert and Yasmine Bleeth.
Uma Thurman, Camaron Dias, Julia Roberts, Nicole Kidman, Kate Winslet, Sharon Stone, Sandra Bullock, Julianne Moore, Rachel Weisz, Famke Janssen, Pamela Anderson, Angelina Jolie, Calista Flockhart, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Jennie Garth, Shannen Doherty, Tori Spelling, Jennifer Aniston e Yasmine Bleeth
Uma Thurman Camaron Dias
Nicole Kidman Julia Roberts
Sharon Stone Sandra Bullock
Kate Winslet Julianne Moore
Yasmine Bleeth Famke Janssen
Pamela Anderson Angelina Jolie
Catherine Zeta-Jones Calista Flockhart
Shannen Doherty Jennie Garth
Tori Spelling Jennifer Aniston
Throughout the 90s, supermodels are the protagonists of the fashion industry, much influencing the people who attended the fashion shows through the TV. The top models of the decade were: Linda Evangelista, Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, Eva Herzigova (em 92 passou a ser o rosto das roupas Guess substiuindo claudia schiffier), Nadja Auermann, Christy-Turlingto, Daniela Pestova Turlington, Kate Moss (fez campanhas para Gucci, Dolce & Gabbana, Calvin Klein, Chanel e Rimmel), Carla Bruni, Tatiana Sorokko, Helena Christensen, Claudia Schiffer, Niki Taylor, Karen Mulder, Yasmeen Ghauri, Stephanie Seymour, Kirsty Hume, Shalom Harlow, Kristina Semenovskaia (modelo da Dior) e Tyra Banks.
Eva Herzigova Naomi Campbell
Nadja Auermann Christy-Turlingto
Kate Moss Daniela Pestova
Carla Bruni Tatiana Sorokko
Helena Christensen Niki Taylor
Karen Mulder Yasmeen Ghauri
Kirsty Hume Stephanie Seymour
Kristina Semenovskaia Shalom Harlow
- JEANS WITH MESH SMOCKS
- OVERALLS SHORT
- MINI SKIRTS
- SKIRTS SOCIAL MIDI