RECREATING THE DECADES
THE CENTURY XX
As one of my goals is to become a makeup artist, to know how this art has evolved over the last century of Western society it is very interesting and important.
I could not talk about the makeup during the XX century without first making a brief account of the history the art of painting the face
EGYPTIAN 4000 A.C.
They were the first to make wide use of cosmetics in social life. They used natural ingredients such as unguent, which was a substance widely used by men and women to keep their skin soft and moisturized and to prevent wrinkles due to dry weather. Egyptian women applied malachite (bright green paste of copper minerals) in the eye lids to color. Used Kohl (eye cosmetic old) to outline the eyes. To color the cheeks used a preparation made of iodine and bromine. And, for the red coloration of the lips, they wore red ocher. However, these substances contain ingredients which could lead to death.
ANCIENT EGYPT CONTAINER KOHL A.C. OCHRE RED
ROMANS 1 DC
The Roman used the chalk white Lead based to lighten the skin. To make blush, they used red chalk, Alkanet Tinctoria (red dye plant) Tyrian red (purple dye produced by a species of sea snails). And red ocher on their lips. Kohl also used to outline the eyes.
CHALK ALKANET TYRIAN
MIDDLE AGES - CENTURY V THE CENTURY XV
At that time there were two periods for the art of painting the face.
CENTURY V TO X
During this period, the use of cosmetics to paint the face was frowned upon by the Church leaders, is considered a demonic practice. The image of the ideal woman was an almost canonical image, where the skin was totally clean and natural.
CENTURY XI TO V CENTURY BEGINNING
In this period, since there is a big change. Began arriving several products coming from the east. The very white skin with rosy cheeks was a symbol of wealth. If the skin was tanned meant that the person was poor and worked in the fields exposed to the sun.
At this time, a new substance made of lead and carbon hydroxide, known as Venetian ceruse, which was a type of powder used to make white skin. The chalk was still in use. In addition, they pressed well cheeks to bleed them, leaving the red spot and the rest of the pale face. At this time, the red chalk was used as blush was applied almost forming a triangle. Red ocher was still applied on the lips
REIGN QUEEN ELIZABETH I -1533 A 1603
At this time, all women wanted to follow the pattern of Beauty Queen Elizabeth was the overly white skin and rosy cheeks. In addition to the social question, the more white skin was the richest person seem, the fact that it took the queen overdo the ceruse and other noblewomen a copy, was that at this time there were several diseases, including smallpox. The queen, still young, contracted the disease and her skin was left with deep scars. So, in order to hide the scars she exaggerated in ceruse powder, applied in several layers on the face and neck. However the ceruse was toxic and the exaggerated and prolonged use caused new skin lesions and led women to use it every time in larger quantities to hide skin problems.
Around the year 1635, the ceruse was classified as poison and began to no longer be used.
Raw eggwhite was used as a waterproofing for the skin and also helped to hide wrinkles. It was a kind of primer of antiquity.
The new substance of this era were cochineal (carmine color dye) that was used on the cheeks and lips, and Atropa belladonna, which is a plant and the juice of the fruit was used in the eye to let them bright and dilate the pupil which was another characteristic of this era.
In the eighteenth century, fashion was determined cut skin Versalles. And the face painting was heavily used in France not only by women but also by men. One of the women that determined the standards of that time was Marie Antoinette. Just as women in the previous period, the white skin and reddish cheeks was a feature. as can be seen in the images above, the first is a painting of Marie Antoinette exposed at the Chateau de Versailles, I could closely observe when I visited. And the second is a woman of the time. At that time I did not find reports of any new substance.
VICTORIAN ERA - 1837 1901
The Victorian era lasted from 1837 until the death of the monarch, Queen Victoria in 1901. The Victorian era coincided with the Belle Epoque and America's Gilded Age. Strong face paint was seen as promiscuous and bold. For this reason, make-up was only used by actresses and prostitutes. It was considered pretty well subtle makeup.
Gilbson Girl Camille Cliffor
The feminine image more widespread in the late Victorian era was the Gibson Girl who was the embodiment of a feminine ideal portrayed by illustrator Charles Dana Gibson over a period from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
Camille Clifford was named the Gibson girl par excellence. She was an actress of theater and in 1900 won a magazine contest that was sponsored by illustrator.
The white skin was still extremely in vogue. Lemon juice and vinegar juice were applied to the skin or consumed to clear it.
At this time, there were already several perfumeries, as Houbigant (1775), Rimmel (1834), Bourjois (1863), Richard Hudnut (1888) who were shops selling various kinds of cosmetics. And cosmetic most widely used at the time were the treatment creams. However women did not want to admit they needed to treat the skin, it was important to sell the image that the skin was healthy and beautiful naturally.
10, 20 and 30
EDWARDIAN ERA - 1901 1910
In the early Edwardian era, facial painting was still only boasted the stage actresses. A woman still could not be seen except with his natural face.
The only exceptions were the rouge and powder. The rouge was applied on the cheeks, forehead and just a stain on the lips.
The image Gilbson girl was still reference.
But all that has changed in a short time. London launched its "cosmetic shops" in 1909. In these counters, women could experience the cosmetics before you have to buy them.
Even as there are several perfumeries, was the twentieth century that began to become popular with the emergence of Helena Rubinstein (1903), Papier Poudre (1903), Coty (1904), Princess Pat (1907), Harriet Hubbard (1907), Max factor (1909) and L'Oréal (1909).
The first real innovation in the development of cosmetic beauty for modern women emerged in the 1910s, during and after the First World War.
The first commercial mascara lashes was established in 1913 by Tom Lyle Williams paid tribute to his sister Maybel, giving the name of Maybelline.
Until the beginning of the century did not exist the makeup term, which was created by Mmax Factor when it launched its first line of cosmetics to paint the face with makeup name.
In 1914, Max Factor introduced the pancake makeup with the first eye shadows commercial henna-based extracts.
The lipstick was invented in 1915 by Maurice Levy.
In 1917, Maybelline improved formula the mask of eyelashes, becoming a compact mass that was applied with a wet brush.
Max Factor, Helena Rubinstein, Elizabeth Arden and Coty began to produce their own lipsticks incorporating your own recipes and secret colors. But it was in 1920 that the real commercial success of these cosmetics began to take off around the world.
The lips were dark and drawn. Blush was applied in almost any face. Eyebrows were designed. Eyes were darkened with black or brown eyeshadow covering the pálpebras.As colors of eye shadows that were popular at the time included gray, green, brown and black.
Max Factor, who opened her salon in Los Angeles in 1909, was already making a name with his work on the Hollywood studio. He helped create multiple movie makeup looks and among them the actress Theda Bara, the first version of Cleopatra in 1917. Another hollywood icon at this time was Lillian Gish. His eyes were strongly marked, well-painted eyelids and the outlined pulling out. This makeup style eyes look Vamp became known as Hollywood
HALL MAX FACTOR
Theda Bara Lillian Gish
The impact of these films on women was considerable. At this time, leaves the scene the Girl Gilbson and begins to emerge the first Girls Flappers, or flappers as they were known in Brazil. It was a generation of postwar women who have left the corset began to wear skirts four fingers above the ankle and cut their hair. The Ballet Russes, a phenomenon in London in 1912, also influenced the makeup of the time.
In this decade, the makeup style had two phases, phase during the war and post war phase
FEATURES OF MAKE-UP DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Foundation - was used two shades lighter than your skin.
Powder - was used to give the pearl finish.
Cheeks - the rouge, blush as he was known at the time, it was pink and applied on a large number of triangular shape on her cheeks.
Lips - the rouge was applied bypassing the lips. The most used colors were red and cherry
Shadow - eyelids were painted brown or green, and the slightly outlined eyes.
Eyelashes - the first version of Maybelline mascara was not very well accepted. The lashes were neatly combed.
Eyebrows - well marked.
MAKEUP OF FEATURES AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR
During this time women began to copy the makeup style of Hollywood stars.
Foundation - was still used two shades lighter than your skin.
Powder - was also used to give the pearl finish.
Cheeks - the rouge still pink, but now he went down a little in the face.
Lips - lipstick had been invented and it was applied in the center of the mouth, forming the "cupid's bow". However, this feature will be more pronounced in the 20 most used colors were still red and cherry.
Eyebrows - were well marked.
Shadow - the color was black or dark brown and her eyes were well marked and gently pulled at the outer corner, since starting a little vamp style hollywood that will have its apex in the 20s.
Eyelashes - Mascara was the big news and no woman could resist enhance your lashes.
Innovations cosmetic 1910s, lipstick, eye shadow, mascara lashes, pancake, etc., brands such as Maybelline, Max Factor and Helena Rubinstein, are now widely used across America and Europe.
Makeup played a huge role in helping women recover from the horrors of war, and assert their new sense of feminine power. In addition, after the First World War there was an imbalance in the ratio of men to women and thus they began to compete with each other for the attention of men, making her makeup even more desirable.
It was a time of great peak selling makeup, women bought the novelty that large companies threw wildly.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MAKEUP THE BEGINNING OF THE DECADE 20
Theda Bara Clara Bow
Foundation - the most widely used color was ivory white.
Powder - was white.
Lip - lipstick was still applied avoiding the corners and being fuller in the center, formed the "cupid's bow". The colors were very dark as purple or purplish red.
Cheeks - the rouge was applied well in heavily cheekbone in a circle.
Eyebrows - were well marked.
Shadow - is the decade vamp style hollywood, well marked eyes, dramatic, with black shadow and gently pulled at the inner corner. His eyes were well outlined.
Eyelashes - well marked, but only the upper.
The Hollywood stars who were reference at this time were Theda Bara, Clara Bow and Mary Pickford.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MAKEUP IN DECADE OF HALF OF 20
Foundation and powder - were also applied in the same way.
Lips - how to apply lipstick in "cupid's bow" was no longer so used. Now began to apply lipstick in the corners, but still not arredondava, a characteristic that will be well marked in the next decade. The most used colors were red and pink.
Cheek - the rouge was still applied in the shape of a circle, but in smaller quantities.
Eyebrows - were well marked.
Shadow - The style vamp was no longer so used, his eyes were less marked and the most widely used color was brown
Eyelashes - well marked, but only on the upper lashes
This decade has undergone a major economic crisis due to the Great Depression that occurred in 1929 with the fall of the New York Stock Exchange.
As a result of the gradual emancipation of women, which began in 1920, they have become more aware of their independence of action and bolder in the way of expressing her femininity, leaving the scene altogether Flapper girl from the 10 decade of the final and half of the 20s and getting into the act more mature woman. Hollywood movies have become very important, because due to crisis for many people, the only entertainment available were the movies. Women copied the models of dresses, hairstyles and make-up of the popular film actresses.
The great actresses who dictated the fashion of the time were Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Caroline Lombard, Ginger Rogers, Jean Harlow, Mae West, Joan Crawford and Bette Davis. .
Jean Harlow Ginger Rogers
Caroline Lombard Marlene Dietrich
Bette Davis Joan Crawford
Great Cosmetics names like Max Factor and Elisabeth Arden became popular in the world of women.
Interestingly, cosmetics sales during the Great Depression increased significantly, and this is a trend that can still be seen during tough economic times. Sometimes dubbed the "Lipstick Index" is a controversial phenomenon that has been studied by economists for years.
The 30s was the era of blondes of Hollywood curls and all women wanted to copy. However, this time, the hair dyes have not been very good and many women hair quite spoiled.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MAKEUP
The trace of makeup is noticeably more refined and elegant than the exaggerated lines of the previous decade.
Foundation - became the same skin tone or tone down with pink undertone and with a little sparkle.
Powder - the powder has changed from white to pink, also emerging the compacts.
Cheeks - the rouge intensity gave a slight decreased and was applied to the apples and slightly below pulling toward your ears.
Lipstick - while in the 20s was avoided the outer corners of the lips in the application of lipstick, in the 30s not only filled the corners, but also the rounded, leaving the fleshy mouth. This type of mouth became known as Crawford Smear, due to actress Joan Crawford. The dark red lipstick purple was no longer used, the most popular color was pink, raspberry, red and orange.
Eyebrows - a kind of symbol of the decade makeup. They had to be thin and forming a long arc. Many women drew the eyebrows and redesenhavam with the pencil.
Shadow - women began to use two shadow shades of the same color and the most used colors were blue, violet, green and brown.
Eyelashes - the mask of eyelashes still widely used, but now also being applied to the lower lashes. There are reports that this time the mask of eyelashes was with ma brown color and the tips black. Long, thin eyelashes have become popular.
In 1938 dies one of the great names of cosmetics and makeup creator of the term, Mr. Maksymilian Faktorowicz - Max Factor.